Climate change continues to pose serious threats to inclusive and sustainable development across all scales. The adverse impacts of climate change are manifested largely at the local level. The underlying drivers of vulnerability—including socio-economic, ecological and human resources, institutions, governance and infrastructure—are inherently context-specific and reflected at local scale. Hundreds of millions of people in both developing and developed countries are vulnerable to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Communities whose livelihoods are largely reliant on natural resources are the most vulnerable and are therefore disproportionately affected by the impacts of climate change. Rapid unplanned urbanization is resulting in increasing numbers of urban people living in poverty and hazard-prone areas.