State and Trends in Adaptation Report 2021: Africa

How Adaptation Can Make Africa Safer, Greener and More Prosperous in a Warming World

State and Trends in Adaptation 2021 combines in-depth analyses, case studies, and viewpoints from those on the frontlines of climate change impacts in Africa. It presents a detailed blueprint for action: offering innovative adaptation and resilience ideas, solutions, and policy recommendations. The results are clear and compelling. Adaptation measures can be enormously cost effective and have the potential to start a positively reinforcing cycle of benefits. As these measures protect people and communities from floods, droughts, and others impacts, they also help lift people out of poverty, reduce hunger and undernourishment, raise incomes and living standards, fight diseases, create jobs, reduce inequality, mitigate the risk of conflicts, and give voice to the most vulnerable. These realizable results, in turn, further increase resilience to climate impacts.

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Front Matter


Present and Projected Climate Risks in Africa

Section 1: Economics and Finance

Macroeconomics of Adaptation

COVID Recovery


The Private Sector

Section 2: Focus Sectors

Agriculture and Food Systems


Transport and Energy

Urban Development

Disaster risk management, floods, and water resources

Section 3: Cross Cutting Themes



Conflict and Migration

Sustainable Development Goals


Climate Risk Country Profiles


Background document

Supplementary Paper supporting the chapters on Macroeconomics and Agriculture

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Rapport sur l’état et les tendances en matière d’adaptation 2021 et 2022


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